Glinka, Mikhail

 Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (20 May 1804 - 3 February 1857)

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (20 May 1804 – 3 February 1857)

 Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (May 20, 1804, with Novospasskoye Smolensk province – February 3, 1857, Berlin,. Is buried in St. Petersburg) – was the Russian composer of world significance. In the face of M. Glinka’s Russian musical culture for the first time put forward the global importance of the composer. Glinka completed the formation of a national school of composition, which has won in the XIX century. one of the leading places in the European culture, became the first Russian classical composers.

Glinka – brilliant Russian composer. Like Pushkin’s poetry, he was the founder of the Russian classical music – opera and symphonic.

Talent Glinka matured during the high rise of Russian culture, is inextricably linked with the growth of the revolutionary-liberation ideas of the time. Contemporary events of the Patriotic War of 1812, Glinka in his patriotic opera “Ivan Susanin” showed the great role of the people in the history of his native country.

The origins of the music of Glinka gone in Russian folk art. Love for the country, its people, to the Russian nature imbued with the best of his works.

Mikhail-Glinka's-house

Mikhail Glinka’s house

LIFE HISTORY

 In 1804, May 20, in the village of Novospasskoye Smolensk province was born a boy, who became a great musician, pride of Russian music. He was a child weak and sickly child. The first years of his life in his father’s estate, the captain retired, among the rural nature of the Smolensk region. Here he learned and loved folk song, hears it. In the impressionable soul of a small child Glinka deeply sunken fairytale land babysitting Avdotya Ivanovna tenderly and devotedly loved him. Many stories about the heroism of the guerrillas heard the boy and forever imbued with love and respect for the Russian people and its mighty strength and spiritual beauty.

 In the home of native Glinka music often sounded. My uncle, who lived nearby, was a good orchestra, composed of musicians serfs.”Music- my soul”, – he said once. Serf Orchestra uncle performed a variety of works. Among them were Russian songs. Recalling his childhood impressions Glinka wrote: “… maybe those songs he had heard me in the childishness were the first reason that I later became mostly develop Russian folk music”.

 Every visit was a serf orchestra for boys holiday. With the violin (which he learned from one of the castle musicians) or a flute, small Glinka sat down to the musicians and hearing them play.”My father often got angry at me, I do not dance, and leave guests – Glinka recalled later – but at the first opportunity, I returned again to the orchestra”.

 Soon there was a governess in the house – V.F. Klammer. With her Glinka studied geography, Russian, French and German, as well as playing the piano. The boy learned quickly and showed particular aptitude for languages and drawing.

 From 1817 to 1822 he studied at the St. Petersburg Glinka in the boarding school at the Main Pedagogical Institute. This guest house was one of the best educational institutions. Among his teachers were exceptional people like Alexander Kunitsyn (one of the favorite teachers of Pushkin), geography professor K. Arsenev- ardent opponent of serfdom. The teacher of Russian literature and educator Glinka was Kyuhelbeker- In Pushkin’s friend, the future participant of the December Revolution. Kyuhelbeker taught “to feel and think.” There is no doubt that he was instrumental in the development of Glinka feelings of love and respect to the people, his willingness to serve. In one room, Glinka lived Pushkin’s brother Lev. This Glinka in his youth became acquainted with the great Russian poet who visited the hostel, visiting Kyuhelbeker, fellow Lyceum, and younger brother. Even then, Glinka was reading Pushkin’s verses. During these years he was seriously engaged in – music, took lessons in piano playing and musical theory. The deep impression made on him three lessons taken from the famous pianist John Field. Successfully Glinka studied foreign languages – Latin, French, German, English and Persian. Often I visited the theater, particularly fond of opera and ballet. During the summer holidays zealously with a serf orchestra of his relatives, conducting them.

 At the end of the Pension Glinka she joined the Office of Communications. But the service pressed him: she kept her from making music, hindered creativity. He soon retired.

 In St. Petersburg Glinka approaches the progressive intelligentsia, it happens in the evenings the poet Delvig, met Zhukovsky and Griboyedov. By this time the young man was already the author of many piano pieces and songs. So, in 1825 he wrote the song “Poor Singer”- (Bednyy pevets) and the elegy “Do not tempt me”- (Ne iskushay). A great impression on the young Glinka trip to the Caucasus, it has taken for the treatment of mineral waters.

 April 25, 1830 Glinka went to Italy. On this trip he had long dreamed of trying to “improve in the arts.” It was assumed that the warmer climate of Italy improve his health frustrated.

 In Italy Glinka worked with great enthusiasm by singing, often in the theater, listening to opera at the time, became acquainted with the best singers and composers, composed the aria in the Italian manner. Having lived in Italy for four years, Glinka went to Germany. In Berlin, he met with the talented German theorist Siegfried Dehn and within five months of taking lessons from him. According Glinka, Den resulted in his musical and theoretical knowledge and skills. Abroad Glinka wrote a few brilliant songs “Venetian Night” – (Venetsianskaya noch’), “Winner” – (Pobeditel’), “Pathetic Trio” – (Pateticheskoye trio), for piano, clarinet and bassoon and a number of other works. Away from home, the idea of creating a national opera.

 Back in 1834 in Russia, Glinka enthusiastically began composing an opera about a patriotic feat of Ivan Susanin. The story told him the poet Zhukovsky, but did not write the libretto for him, as he had promised. Glinka had to turn to the services of Baron E. Rosen – close to the court of human monarchical beliefs. Written Rosen libretto glorified autocracy. Against the wishes of the composer called the opera “Life for the Tsar” – (Zhizn’ za tsarya). The original composer’s intention was different, and in the sense that Glinka was originally, “Ivan Susanin” opera called “national heroic and tragic opera.” In his work Glinka glorified the heroic feat of a simple Russian peasant who sacrificed their lives for the country.

 Three years Glinka worked as Kapellmeister at the Court Chapel. He made a lot of useful information for the development of Russian choral art. Glinka himself traveled to Ukraine

 Glinka’s opera with great success was executed November 27, 1836 at the Bolshoi Theatre in St. Petersburg. Progressive people in Russian society appreciated it. But the aristocratic audience mockingly called the music “yamschitskoy” ( “coachman”).

 Three years Glinka worked as Kapellmeister at the Court Chapel. He made a lot of useful information for the development of Russian choral art. Glinka himself traveled to Ukraine to gather in the chapel of boys with good voices.

 After the premiere of “Ivan Susanin” composer became interested in the idea of creating an opera based on the story of Pushkin’s poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila”. Composer dreamed that Pushkin himself wrote the libretto for him, but the poet’s untimely death prevented this.

 The libretto was created gradually on the plan drawn up by Glinka. Poetic excerpts from Pushkin’s poem interspersed with more or less skilful verses of friends of the composer. Later Shirkov poet-amateur with the help of Glinka’s finally finished and put in order the libretto.

 “Ruslan and Ludmilla” by Glinka – the first Russian fairy-epic opera. It is imbued with the people’s heroism, grandeur epos, patriotism. At the end of the opera people glorifies not only the valiant knight Ruslan, who defeated the evil wizard Chernomor, but also the power and strength of ancient Kiev.

 From the people’s heroic “Ivan Susanin” opera with its characteristic intensity and continuity of action, the second opera of Glinka is distinguished not only for its fantastic plot, but also special needs – quiet, leisurely. The entire opera is a colorful contrast alternation of individual paintings. Following the majestic scene of the wedding feast of ancient mansion in Kiev prince followed the magical adventures of the heroes in the far north (Ruslan meeting with the wise Finn and as giant Head), the magical gardens Naina and Chernomor. The majestic picture in the capital city of Kiev with a final mighty chorus completes the symmetrical product.

 Work on the opera lasted more than five years. During these years, Glinka break with aristocratic medium and moved into the house of the writer N. Kukol’nik. Here he meets with writers, actors and musicians. At the same time was composed music to the tragedy “Prince Kholmskiy” – (“Knyaz’ Kholmskiy”) by N. Kukol’nik (Overture, symphonic interludes and three songs, one of which – “He walks the wind at the gate” – (“Khodit veter u vorot”) – has become a folk). Then were born many of the masterpieces of vocal Glinka: “Night views”- (“Nochnoy smotr”) in the words of Zhukovsky, “I remember a wonderful moment”- (“Ya pomnyu chudnoye mgnoven’ye”) and “Night Zephyr”-(“Nochnoy zefir”) in the words of Pushkin, “Doubt”-(“Somneniye”), “The Skylark”- (“Zhavoronok”). Penned in a fit of deep heart feelings “Waltz Fantasy” for piano was later orchestrated, and in 1856 transformed into a vast orchestral pieces. November 27, 1842 – exactly six years since the first staging of “Ivan Susanin” – the premiere of Glinka’s second opera – “Ruslan and Lyudmila”. Democratic public and the best representatives of the intelligentsia were able to assess the unique beauty of the creating genius of Glinka. Music writer V. F. Odoyevski published an article dedicated to the new opera: “On the basis of Russian music grows Luxurious Flower – it is your joy, your glory. Let worms try to crawl on his stem and sully it – worms will fall to the ground, and the flower will remain. Take care of him, he is gentle and flower blooms only once in a century. ” But the court nobility opera met with cold indifference. The ratio of aristocratic circles well expressed the king’s brother, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich: he sent the guilty officers are not under arrest in the guardhouse, and the presentation of “Ruslan and Lyudmila”, considering it a punishment.

 Opera began to give less and less, even though she was doing a good collection, and soon all removed from the scene. Rarely was raised and “Ivan Susanin” – in addition to the dilapidated scenery and costumes.

 In 1844 Glinka went abroad again, this time to France and Spain. In Paris, Glinka met with French composer Hector Berlioz. With great success in Paris, a concert of works by Glinka. Two years Glinka spent in Spain. His lively fascinated popular Spanish music. Composer acquainted with Spanish folk musicians, singers and guitarists, studied the language, even learned to dance with castanets. Using records of Spanish folk dances, Glinka in 1845 wrote a great symphonic work – concert overture “Aragón Jota” in 1848, already on his return to Russia, there was one more overture – “Night in Madrid”. At the same time, and was composed symphonic fantasy “Kamarinskaya” on the themes of two Russian songs: wedding lyric “Because of the mountains, mountain high”- (“Iz-za gor, gor vysokikh”) and jaunty dance tune.

 In recent years, Glinka lived in Petersburg, then in Warsaw, Paris and Berlin. The composer was full of creative plans, but the situation of hostility and persecution he was subjected to, interfere with creativity. A few scores he burnt started.

 Close, a devoted friend of the composer’s last years of life was his beloved younger sister Lyudmila Shestakova. For her little daughter Olga Glinka wrote some of his piano little pieces. The house of the composer going to poets, writers, actors and singers, advanced young musicians. Visited him Dargomyzhsky, then ended his “Mermaid”- (“Rusalka”), there were young music critics A. Serov and Vladimir Stasov. Soon they were joined by a talented young man Mily Balakirev, who later became head of the “Mighty Handful”. Impressed acquaintance with Balakirev Glinka wrote in a letter to his sister as follows: “… the first in Balakirev I found the views, so close to my appropriate in all that relates to music … over time it will be the second Glinka.”

 Glinka died in 1857 in Berlin. His ashes moved to St. Petersburg and was buried in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, and after the death of his brother L. Shestakova dedicated her life to the promotion of his work. She became a close friend of Glinka’s successors – the composers of the “Mighty Handful”.

“IVAN SUSANIN”

  Glinka’s opera “Ivan Susanin” – the heroic folk musical drama. For the first time on the Russian domestic scene of the opera is based on the continuous development of the musical was staged, spoken without inserts.
Storyline for the opera was the legend of the heroic deed of the Kostroma peasant Ivan Susanin Osipovich in 1612, in a difficult time for Russia its occupation by foreign invaders. Polish troops were already expelled from Moscow, but some of their troops still roamed the country. One of these detachments wandered into the village Domnino where Ivan Susanin lived. Susanin has agreed to become a conductor, but started the Polish unit in the impenetrable jungle and swamps, and he died there.
The feat of the Kostroma peasant-inspired Decembrist poet Kondraty Rileyev, wrote a thought “Ivan Susanin”. Kondraty Rileyev and Glinka in the heroic act of the common man saw a manifestation of strength and patriotism of the Russian people, ready to give their lives for the freedom of his native land.
In the opera, the four acts and epilogue.

 The first act takes place in the village Domnino, where he lives with Ivan Susanin Antonida daughter and adopted son Vanya. Antonida awaits the return of her fiancé – Sobinin warrior who protects the homeland from enemies. She dreams about the imminent wedding. Susanin replies: “What wonder about the wedding – no end to grief.” With a detachment of warriors Sobinin arrives, he tells about the successes of Russian peasants militia led by Minin and Pozharsky. Now it is possible to play and marriage. Ivan Susanin and blesses Sobinin Antonida.

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“Ivan Susanin” score

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The first action-characteristic of the Russian people and the main characters of the work. It begins with an extensive choral introductions. In her two choirs – male and female. In the words of Glinka, male choir sends “selfless strength and intrepidity of the Russian people.” The melody of the chorus with her manly intonations close Russian folk songs – old and valiant soldier:

 Female chorus melody appears first in the orchestra sounds and only then by votes. Lively and bright, it is close to the spring round dance songs. Wide and at the same time it is replaced by a moving melody of dance step further with knocks feet:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The final part of the introduction – a large choral fugue, in which the tone of the male and female choirs come together, completing the development of a powerful culmination.
Cavatina and Rondo Antonida following the introduction, reveal the typical features of Russian women – tenderness and loyalty to her feelings, sincerity and simplicity:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

IVAN-SUSANIN-(Scene-from-the-opera)

“Ivan Susanin” Scene from the opera

 Trio “Not tired, my dear”, conveys the sad experiences Sobinin and Antonida. Heartful its melody built on expressive intonations urban household songs. Same melody sounds and the party Susanin. Individual song phrases each with singers like echo, meet one another, forming simulation:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The second action. Magnificent ball in the castle of the Polish King Sigismund. Poles brag about their victories and believe in the near future conquest of Russia. But there is a messenger, he tells about the plight of the Polish army and that Minin and Pozharsky collect people’s militia, to finally defeat the enemy. Poles in turmoil. Immediately matures plan for a new predatory invasion. A large detachment is going to hike.

 All second action stands in sharp contrast to the first. Musical characteristics are quite different. Instead, a simple heartfelt lyrics instead of folk choirs sounds mostly dance music. Four dances, following one after the other: shiny polish (Polonaise), Krakowiak, waltz and mazurka, – form a kind of symphonic suite from the Polish of only (except the waltz) dance.
Opens action Polonaise Brilliant:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The plot and the dramatic development of the opera scene of the ball is important. In music, national dances Glinka found a lot of bright and imaginative touches, aptly characterizing the Polish gentry – a proud and arrogant. Rhythmically relief melody polonaise and mazurka in the future everywhere accompany the emergence of the Poles, and the tone vigorous and dashing mazurka later (in the fourth act) in a modified form will give the arrogant Polish gentry other psychological characteristics.

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The third action. The house of Ivan Susanin preparing for the wedding and Antonida Sobinin. Suddenly there are Poles, they need to have Susanin their way to Moscow. Susanin stealthily send Vanya warned about the danger of Russian troops, he decides to make the Poles in the impenetrable forest wilderness. Singing wedding “songs of praise” come girlfriend Antonida. They find a bride in tears, she feared for the life of his father. Appears Sobinin. Together with the peasants, he decides to go in search of Susanin and the Polish squad.
Song Vanya “As a mother killed” opens the third act and the music is characteristic of an orphan boy. Vanya sings a simple and heartfelt song expressing her gratitude to the dedication and named his father. Vanya Song close Russian folk songs:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 This is followed by a quartet Susanin, Vanya, and Antonida Sobinin. But the quiet and peaceful family friendly conversation violated the arrival of the Poles – the music erupts polonaise theme of the second act.
Susanin scene with the Poles – a wonderful example of dramatically evolving ensemble. Musical characteristics of Poles delineated rhythms of the polonaise and the mazurka. Calm, dignified answers Susanin retain its inherent staid and serious. His musical speech majestic and full of dignity. The responses Susanin Poles words sound proud Russian man, a patriot of his homeland, ready to sacrifice themselves for the sake of it.

 In reply Susanin “Great and holy is our motherland” emerging theme of the chorus “Glory” from the opera finale:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

His response to the Poles “Fear is not terrible, not afraid of death, I shall lay down for the Holy Russia” is based on the theme of male choir from the introduction:
Before leaving Susanin says goodbye to his daughter. Music is full of grief and anxiety.

 Bridal Chorus “Сarousing, are bottled Torrents of Spring on meadows” sounds stark contrast, set off by one of the most dramatic moments of the opera. By its melodic chorus warehouse near Russian wedding songs of praise. Music it is light and serene. The choir is presented in a unique quintuple sized and typical of Russian songs; there are a lot of without halftone melodic speed:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The song-romance Antonida “Do not grieve about, girlfriend” – one of the most poetic pages of the opera. Melody her simple and sincere. It heard touching intonations of folk lamentation. Romance Song reveals the depth of grief Antonida and thus shows a new side of the wealth of her peace of mind:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The fourth action. Sobinin his men barely sneaks on snow-covered forest, searching for traces of the Polish squad.
The gate of the monastery, where militia, craft and trade people are. Late at night resorts here Vanya and long knocking at the locked gate. Excitement pervaded recitative Vanya “The poor horse in the fall”. This is followed by a small melodious aria. Finally the door opens. Vanya says the  Polish squad. Warriors go on the search for the enemy.
Backwoods obstruction. Frosty night. This Susanin led the Poles. The choir of the Poles in the rhythm of the mazurka good passes depression enemy soldiers. They fall asleep. Susanin premonition of death, and ready for it. Rises snowstorm. Poles awake. They finally realized that Susanin intentionally led them here, and kill him.
Recitative and aria Susanin – one of the most intense dramatic opera episodes. It was in this until the end of the aria opens way Susanin – a hero and a patriot. Aria begins a full emotion melodious recitative “Smell the truth”. This music – sample expressive singing recitation Glinka:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 Intonation Susanin still unhurried calm and courageous. Follow recitative aria “Thou goest my dawn” is imbued with a mournful mood. Susanin premonition of a quick death, recalled their children, mentally saying goodbye to them, and preparing for death. Melody aria strict and very restrained. The melody is simple, expressive melodic:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The denouement comes at a time when Susanin firmly and courageously responds to the Poles: “There I started you where the gray wolf and not run …”. These words were written in the libretto by Glinka. And in the orchestra at this time repeated characteristic melodic turn of the valiant Russian song “Down by Mother Volga”:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 Epilogue. In Moscow, on Red Square, people celebrate the victory over the enemy. Appear Antonida Vanya with Sobinin. They tell of the tragic death of his father. The final chorus “Glory” people glorifies his native land and fallen heroes, thank all the soldiers, led by Minin and Pozharsky, Russia defended freedom. Despite the relatively rapid movement, music Choir majestic and solemn, and this gives it the anthem features. Glinka himself called the choir anthem-march:

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“Ivan Susanin” score

 The opera “Ivan Susanin” – realistic work, truthfully and sincerely tells about historical events. Music Opera deep national, songs. Opera is framed by large folk scene – introduction and epilogue. This underlines the fact that the main protagonist of the opera is the people. In large choral scenes experience of the Russian people reflected, given the versatile characteristics of the people, opened his heroism, fortitude, greatness of mind and heart responsiveness.
Opera “Ivan Susanin” and “Ruslan and Ludmilla” by Glinka – great treasures of Russian music. Glinka created a new kind of folk music drama had an enormous influence on subsequent works of Russian composers, especially in the tragic history of the opera ( “Pskovityanka” by Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov”). From fairy-epic opera “Ruslan and Lyudmila” is a direct way to “Knyazyu Igoryu” by Borodin, and to the wonderful operas by Rimsky-Korsakov, such as “Sadko” and “Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh” – (“Skazaniye o nevidimom grade Kitezhe”).

 WORKS FOR ORCHESTRA

 An important place in the works of Glinka hold pieces for symphony orchestra. It was mentioned above that Glinka childhood loved the orchestra, symphonic music more preferring any other.
The most significant works by Glinka for orchestra – fantasy “Kamarinskaya”, Spanish overture “Aragon Jota” and “Night in Madrid” and the symphonic scherzo “Waltz Fantasy”. The repertoire includes symphonic concerts often and overtures to both operas by Glinka, and excellent music to the tragedy “Prince Chelm”.
The symphonic works, as well as in the opera, Glinka remained true to his artistic principles. His orchestral pieces available to wide audience of listeners, highly and perfect in form. Glinka thought that bold expressive means of modern harmonic language and new orchestral colors can be combined with the simplicity and accessibility of images, creating works “equally are clear (ie understandable – E.S.) connoisseurs and simple public”. Not by chance in his symphonic pieces of recent years, he constantly turned to folk-song themes. But Glinka not just “quoted” a well developed them and based on them has created original works, beautiful in its music and the beauty of the images of instrumentation.

 Symphonic Fantasia “Kamarinskaya” (1848) is a variation on two Russian folk themes, developed successively. These contrasting themes. The first of them – a wide and smooth wedding song “Because of the mountains, mountain high” – (“Iz-za gor, gor vysokikh”), tells the story of the white swan – the bride, which peck and graze gray geese – unkind bridegroom’s relatives:

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“Kamarinskaya” score

 The second theme – daring Russian dance “Kamarinskaya”:

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“Kamarinskaya” score

 Chant of the first song is quite slow, thoughtful lyric. By varying the melody remains the same, criss-crossing the ever new henchmen, like the lingering Russian songs. The development of threads colorful composer uses woodwinds, similar sounding brass folk instruments – pastoral horn, zhaleika, a pipe.
Chant “Kamarinskaya” fast and fun. In variations of this melody Glinka uses pizzicato strings, reminiscent of the sound of Russian balalaika. By varying the dance-melody also acquires henchmen, and sometimes substantially alters their appearance. So, after a number of variations of the melody appears similar – despite the rapid movement of dance and abruptly – with the theme of broaching wedding song:

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“Kamarinskaya” score

This theme leads to quietly return to the first – slowly, stately theme, followed by a renewed vigor sounds riotous folk dance.

In “Kamarinskaya” Glinka embodies the national character features bold and bright strokes painted a picture of the festive life of the Russian people. Chiaroscuro slow lyrical, and then cheerful, perky songs can often be found in the national choral performance. It is very important that Glinka cleverly applied podgolosochny (in rus.) and variational type of melody, typical folk performance.

Subsequently, all these features have evolved and other Russian composers. It is no accident Tchaikovsky said of “Kamarinskaya” that all Russian symphonic music lies in the “Kamarinskaya”, “just as the whole oak – is in the acorn”.

Waltz Fantasy” – one of the most poetic lyrical works by Glinka. At first it was a small piano piece. Later it was expanded and orchestrated. Shortly before his death (in 1856), the composer took up her recycled and turned into a perfect little piece household symphonic fantasy. It is based on sincere, affectionate topic.
This wistful and elegiac melody Thanks descending tritone tone sounds abruptly and intensely. Peculiar structure of the theme: triple metre odd phrases, which we will meet in the Russian folk songs, rather than “square” quadruple, as in Western European waltzes. This structure gives the odd melody Glinka aspiration and “flight”:

 

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“Kamarinskaya” score

With the main theme of the waltz in stark contrast variety in content scenes that are light and graceful, the excitement and dramatic. The main theme is repeated many times, forming the shape of Rondo. Surprisingly elegant instrumentation of this work. The predominance of string group gives the whole symphonic works lightness, flight, transparency, unique charm of the dream. For the first time in Russian music on the basis of domestic dance originated elaborate symphonic work that reflects the diverse shades of emotional experiences.

In his “Waltz Fantasy”, “Kamarinskaya” and ballet scenes of both operas by Glinka created not faded – fine examples of symphonic music, which has grown from a domestic dance. The initiative continued with Russian composers: Tchaikovsky, Balakirev, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Glazunov, and today, many Soviet composers.

SONGS AND ROMANCES

 Romances and songs by Glinka – the pride of the Russian classics. The composer wrote them throughout life. Lyrical ballads Glinka – a kind of confession of his soul. Some of these paintings depicted Russian nature and life. The romances of Glinka compiled all the best that was created by his predecessors and contemporaries – writers domestic romance. He himself was a great master of vocal and well-known possibilities of the human voice. Not surprisingly, the form of a romance he managed to bring to the highest perfection.
All charms in the romances of Glinka: sincerity and simplicity, modesty and restraint in the expression of feelings and moods, classical symmetry and rigor of form, beauty of the melody, always singing, expressive, true to the content of the text, and clear colorful harmony.

 Among romances and songs by Glinka can meet a variety of genres: from the “Russian Song” sensitive domestic romance “Bednyy pevets”- ( “Poor Singer”) to a dramatic ballad, the song of the narrative “Nochnoy smotr”- ( “Night parade”), from the lively after-dinner and the “road” songs to lyrical ” songs on the water “- Barcarolle. Distinctive originality of his songs, dancing to the rhythm of the waltz, mazurka, polonaise, the Spanish bolero, last March “Prosti, korabl’ vzmakhnul krylom”- ( “I’m sorry, the ship swung wing”). A characteristic feature of the romances of Glinka is also a harmonious combination of vocal and piano part.

 Glinka was the founder of the Russian school of vocal singing his songs – an inexhaustible source of beauty and perfection, from which scooped all subsequent Russian composers.
Glinka wrote songs on poems by contemporary poets – Zhukovsky, Delvig, Pushkin. Many of his songs are written in the words of close friends, such as N. Kukol’nik. In the verses of the poet in 1840, the composer wrote the song cycle “Farewell to St. Petersburg”- (“Proshchaniye s Peterburgom”). Among romances cycle – “The Skylark”- (“Zhavoronok”) and “The parting song”- (“Poputnaya pesnya”).

 “The Skylark” – a sincere and thoughtful song with easy flowing melody and smooth, natural and simple, light-colored with sadness:

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“The Skylark” score

The piano part is flat impressively recreated Russian landscape – its vast distances, fields and meadows with creeping stems on the wind grasses and cereals. Before the introduction of the singer accompanied heard warbling lark.
“The parting song” – a sample of the bright, cheerful lyrics. In it all – the movement and impulse, violent and ardent expectation of the meeting, impatient, anxious heartbeat. And in the song everything is subordinated to this mood:

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“The parting song” score

Piano part with an elastic and clear rhythm as it passes the rapid movement of the train, the rattle of wheels and flashing outside the window changing landscape paintings. Characterized by energetic and sonorous chord at the beginning of each stave – and pushes him irresistibly rushing forward melody. And then fast, rushing melody gives way to a wide and smooth melody, expressive transmitting longing expectations:

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“The parting song” score

“I remember a wonderful moment”– (“Ya pomnyu chudnoye mgnoven’ye”). The vocal lyrics of Glinka romance occupy an important place in the words of Pushkin. Among them, “I remember a wonderful moment” – the pearl of Russian vocal lyricism, which merged together the genius of the poet and the composer. Ternary form Romances corresponds to the content of the poem, which reflects three important points of psychic life hero: the first meeting, the bitterness of separation from his beloved, and the joy of the come back date. romance Melody deeply impresses with its smooth and gentle grace.

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“I remember a wonderful moment” score

A striking contrast sounds disturbing the middle part. Here music becomes recitative-declamatory and harsh. In the third part returns to the previous light melody, but it becomes a joyful and excited, and support – mobile and tremulous.

Romance refers to the mature period of creativity Glinka, so mastery of the composer in him so completely. Never before, and no one to Pushkin and Glinka was not raised to such a height the beauty of the human senses.

Glinka – the founder of Russian classical music, the creator of the national Russian classical opera – heroic and mythical epic, the founder of Russian classical symphony, the creator of the immortal beauty of the songs and romances.
His musical language Glinka created based on the Russian folk song. At the same time, he was keenly interested in the art of other countries. The first of Russian composers Glinka deep in his music he made the characteristic features of the eastern peoples music. Along with Russian songs in “Ivan Susanin” opera sound rhythms of Polish national dances and Spanish Overture – Spanish folk tunes. Many took Glinka and smoothness of the Italian song melodies.
Light and life-affirming music of Glinka – the great treasure of Russian musical culture. In his works we studied later Russian composers, in their own way by developing different aspects of creativity Glinka. Bequeathed Glinka tradition became the basis for the further development of Russian music. Successors Glinka case as well, as he sought his art to serve the people faithfully recreate in their works of folk life. And this is the continuing importance of his work.

 


 You can find and download free scores of the composer:

 

One thought on “Glinka, Mikhail

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